Today, 20 March 2021, a Round table discussion was organized by Center for Participatory Research and Development (CPRD), focusing on “Context and Expectations from Enhanced Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) to lessen the Climate Change impacts in Bangladesh”. The discussion took place at the Daily Star Center, Karwan Bazar, Dhaka, from 10 am to 2 pm. At the onset of the discussion, CPRD launched its policy analysis entitled “Enhanced Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) to Tackle Climate Change: Context and Expectations”.
In the discussion, Mr. Md. Shamsuddoha, Chief Executive of CPRD, presented the keynote speech and chaired the discussion. The former Research director of BIDS, Dr. M. Assaduzzaman; Mr. Md. Ziaul Haque and Mr. Mirza Shawkat Ali, directors of the Department of Environment, Dr. Fazle Rabbi Sadeque Ahmed, Director (Environment and Climate Change) of PKSF, Dr. Nurul Quadir (Ex-Additional Secretary, MOEFCC), Quamrul Islam Chowdhury (President of Bangladesh Environmental Journalist Forum), Utpal Dutta (Energy Expert) and many other distinguished guests, as well as CPRD staffs, were present in the discussion.
In the keynote presentation, Md Shamsuddoha described the significance of the enhanced carbon emission reduction to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Centigrade from the pre-industrial era. He emphasized robust mitigation actions under the revised and Enhanced NDCs that many countries, including Bangladesh, have already submitted to the UNFCCC by the deadline of 31 December 2020. He strongly criticized the interim of Bangladesh’s enhanced NDC as there is no quantified emission reduction target in the interim report. The report has been developed without any broad-based consultation with respective ministries, departments, and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs). He said, “the civil society and various stakeholders of the country should be discussed to take the NDC process forward and take part in building Bangladesh as a sustainable, environmentally friendly developed country”.
Among the experts, Dr. M. Assaduzzaman emphasized parliamentary discussions while developing the country’s Enhanced NDC. At the same time, Dr. Nurul Qader said that everyone’s participation in the NDC is reasonably necessary. Regarding the Enhanced NDC, Mr. Mirza Showkot Ali expressed the possibility of considering diverse sectors for mitigation in the NDC final report. In the discussion, Mr. Ziaul Hoque highly appreciated the endeavors made by CPRD to create a bridge between the government and Civil Society Organizations. The discussion ended with a comprehensive speech by Dr. Fazle Rabbi Sadik, who also emphasized choosing priority sectors for mitigation.
CPRD has given the following Recommendation for the enhanced NDC:
- Carbon emission could significantly be reduced from the Construction sector and implications of effective building code for the development of infrastructures could also reduce the carbon emission, which will ultimately contribute to the NDC.
- All the available transports could be categorized based on their fitness and fuel efficiency. The less energy-efficient vehicles could be replaced by vehicles that can ensure less energy and, therefore, emission. The Metro Rail project’s ongoing construction in Dhaka can reduce 14.9% mobility stress on Dhaka’s transport movement. Conditional NDC can include the expansion of Mass Rapid Transit in Dhaka and other Metropolitan cities.
- Machineries of Ready Made Garments (RMGs) can be made more efficient to mitigate this sector’s carbon emission.
- Brick Kilns in Bangladesh contribute a substantial portion of carbon that is emitted from the construction sector. Furthermore, Brickfields uses coal intensively, which leads to the release of GHG gases. It’s becoming obligatory to think about the sustainable alternative of traditional materials and strategies followed in Brick kilns.
- GHG emissions from the agriculture sector could dwindle in two different ways. Firstly, prohibiting the use of old agricultural machineries and tools that uses high energy. The import of less energy-efficient agricultural machineries should be discouraged. Secondly, the country’s agricultural method should be replaced from the traditional ‘Continuous Inundation’ method to the ‘wetting and drying method. Alongside, through using organic fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizers, it’s possible to reduce 45% GHGs emissions from the agricultural sector.
- Replacing the biomass fuel (wood, rice husk, cow dung etc.) by bio-gas production at the village level could significantly reduce the carbon emission and most of the target of NDC could be achieved.
The emission of Hydro-Fluro Carbon (HFC) should be controlled globally, if the total emission of HFC can be made zero, it is very likely to avoid the rise of global temperature by 0.5 degree Celsius.